Diospyros malabarica

Diospyros malabarica (Desr.) Kostel. (EBENACEAE)
Common names
: Anilsra.
 Kannada: Hole thumiri.
 Tulu: Bandada mara.
Tamil: Tumbika, Kattatti.
Malayalam: Panachi, Vanaji.
Telugu: Elosu.

Description: Trees, up to 12 m tall with spreading branches; bark dark grey, smooth.  Leaves alternate, oblong-lanceolate, up to 19 x 6.5 cm, acute at base, obtuse or acute at apex, coriaceous. Flowers in 1 – many- flowered cymes, 4 – merous, greenish. Calyx lobes in male flowers broadly triangular, pubescent; in female slightly cordate. Corolla  retuse, yellow.  Stamens usually 40, in pairs; anthers hairy.  Pistillode rudimentary. Ovary 8 – celled.  Fruit a berry, globose, ca 4 cm across, yellow when mature; fruiting calyx large, reflexed; pulp viscid, turning black when exposed. Seeds 4-8, smooth.   
Flowering & Fruiting: February-November.
Distribution: India: Almost throughout.  Common along river banks. Sri Lanka.         

Uses: Fully ripe fruits have a  mawkish sweet taste and are edible. The wood is greyish in colour, close-grained, moderately hard and heavy is sometimes employed for building construction and in boat making. The wood yields charcoal. Pulped fruit is used as a preservative for fishing nets and as a glue for book binding; boiled with or without powdered charcoal, it is used for paving bottoms of boats. Unripe fruits are employed for dyeing cloth and tanning hides. Bark used in dysentery and as febrifuge; unripe fruit used in ulcer; ripe fruit anticalculaus, used in diseases of blood; flower and fruit aphrodisiac, tonic, used in hiccup of children and lumbago; fruit and bark antidysenteric; ripe fruit and wood antibilious; infusion of fruit used as a gargle in aphthae and sore throat; seed and bark astringent; seed oil used in dysentery and diarrhoea. The bark, fruit, seed and seed oil are used for treating boils, leucorrhoea, haemorrhage, polyuria, leprosy, urticuria, intermittent fever and snakebite poisoning.